State of Progress
1/2008: The building opened to the public on September 17th 2007.
Energy performance and related climate data are now being collected and the initial design hypotheses tested.
3000 m² Gross Floor Area.
New construction seven floor building between adjoining buildings on two facades.
Primary health care centre - office-type visiting rooms and public areas.
Location: Central Barcelona (Eixample district), latitude: 41,3º
Expected Energy Demand (kWh/m2/yr)
Renewable Energy Systems contribution
The building has been conceived to be responsive to seasonal comfort requirements and at the same time to contribute to the reduction of energy costs. The main energy savings measures are listed bellow:
Passive elements, such as a fixed shading device upon the central patio and vertical and horizontal solar protections on the SW facade will regulate the relationship between natural daylighting and solar protection.
The use of a radiant ceiling based heating and cooling system permits the chiller and boiler to achieve high coefficients of performance as less work is required due to the relatively low temperature differences to be achieved (cold water at 15-17ºC instead of 7ºC, and hot water at 35ºC instead of 45 to 60ºC).
To adjust the humidity to prevent condensation on the cooled ceilings and maintain comfort levels, an innovative energy efficient liquid sorption dehumidifier with lithium chloride solution, is integrated in the ventilation system.
The building also integrates renewable energy sources with PV panels for electricity production and solar thermal panels for heating and domestic hot water.
Finally the Building Management System (BMS) and the planned monitoring will also contribute to reduce the energy demand of the building, controlling the heating, cooling ventilation and lighting systems.
Prefabricated concrete elements (for improved quality control, reduced construction time and risk of complication). Cork insulation for consideration as an “ecological” material with a relatively low environmental impact.
Rainwater, and greywater from the washbasins, is collected in a tank with a capacity for 15 m3 in the basement and is treated physically and chemically (filtering and chlorination) prior to use in the dual-flush toilet cisterns and, in case of fire, in the sprinkler system. The expected annual water saving is 380m3.
|zone||Spanish New Building Standards (CTE 2006)|
|Characteristics of the Primary Health Care Centre, Barcelona |
Project deliverables reference:
High energy performance, low-emissivity, double glazing:
Project deliverables reference:
Perforated vertical and horizontal solar protections have been designed to find an optimal compromise between day lighting and protection from excess solar radiation in summer on the principal (South-westerly) façade. Fixed lamellas spanning the interior patio have been designed to allow day lighting of the inner half of the building whilst protecting this part of the building from excess solar radiation in summer.
High efficiency, electronic ballast fluorescent lighting throughout the building with sensors in certain areas with an expected energy saving of 25% compared to conventional lighting solutions in similar buildings
The specific air quality characteristics of a health sector building pre-determine many design decisions regarding ventilation and thus also heating and cooling. The humid summer climate of Barcelona is also a decisive factor. The result is the need for a closed (not naturally ventilated) system including de-humidification. The heating and cooling system with a coefficient of energy performance (COP) of over 4 is based on radiant ceiling panels. This configuration allows operating the cooling system with fluid temperatures of 15-17ºC instead of the 7ºC of a conventional air conditioning system, while the heating fluid temperature is 35ºC instead of 45-70ºC. The fact that the installation has to provide less cold and less heat entails an energy saving estimated at approximately 33,000 kWh/year.
This system requires independent ventilation and an air treatment which adjusts the humidity to prevent condensation on the cooled ceilings and maintain comfort levels. An innovative liquid sorption dehumidifier with lithium chloride solution is integrated in the ventilation system. This solution, compared to conventional alternatives, offers lower energy consumption and very efficient air filtering and hygiene. Heat exchangers are used to recuperate heat from the return-air and preheat the intake-air in winter. Free-cooling controlled by the building management system integrated in the air handling units accounts for further energy savings during the intermediate seasons.
Regulations for health sector buildings and the cooling requirements in Barcelona’s climate (requiring dehumidification) combine to preclude a full naturally ventilated building design solution.
A grid-connected Building Integrated Photovoltaic System, with integration in the façade and a conventional roof-top installation, amount for 10 kWp installed power (126 m2) and an expected electricity production of 12 371 kWh per year.
PV_1: Façade integration: solar protection and transparency
PV_2: Roof-top installation
Project deliverables reference: D12 20/12/2005,
Roof-top, flat plate collector installation designed to heat 60% of the domestic hot water demand of the building and also to the low temperature space heating demand in winter.
Project deliverables reference: D12, 20/12/2005
The inclusion of a BMS with modular structure, with the possibility of user access and visualization of data via TPC/IP, internet or intranet constitutes the control and monitoring system of the building. The system allows consultation, trend analysis and historical analysis in real time, and also provides alarms of malfunctions.
Energy consumption is being monitored (in chillers, boiler, heat-recovery units, de-humidifiers...) in order to find the optimum operational conditions to ensure user comforts is compatible with energy efficiency criteria.
Awaiting monitoring system completion.
Site specific local poster and explanatory leaflet produced.
The total investment in innovation sums up to 370,000 Euros, exceeding slightly the SARA target of a maximum 5% cost increase compared to conventional buildings. The annual economic saving due to the reduced energy consumption is estimated in more than 26,000 Euros, while the maintenance costs should be similar to a conventional building.
The maintenance costs should be similar to a conventional building.
In absolute figures, the savings / contributions by renewable energy sources are expected to be:
|Energy Use||Expected Saving / Contribution|
|High thermal insulation standard||134 000 kWh/year|
|Space conditioning by radiation systems||94 000 kWh/year|
|Production of PV systems||22 000 kWh/year|
|Solar thermal installation||11 000 kWh/year|
|Lighting control system||23 000 kWh/year|
Futhermore, the water demand will be reduced by 35% and 380 m3 of drinking water will be saved by using rainwater and reusing grey water.
This building has a high replication potential and already now serves as a reference point for further public buildings construction to push for performance beyond standard levels in the context of the Catalan Government’s stated commitment to implementing sustainable measures in public buildings.
IMAGES OF BUILDING UNDER CONSTRUCTION
A workshop on energy efficient design criteria, operation and maintenance of public access buildings will be organised in April 2008 in Barecelona.
Francisco Gallardo (Architect)
ITEC (Consultants) http://www.itec.es/
AIA (Activitats Instal·lacions Architectòniques) http://www.arquitectoniques.com/